Conquest of the Himalaya. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Alps had all been climbed. And the same as some mountains in the Americas. An invention made at the beginning of the century changed everything. In 1908, Oscar Eckenstein invented the 10-point crampon. It is facilitating ice climbing and reducing the need for climbers to cut steps on glaciers.
As the twentieth century passed, the truly international character of mountaineering began to transform. More and more Austrians, Chinese, English, French, Germans and Indians(Sub Continent) got interested. Also Italians, Japanese, and Russians have turned their attention to the opportunities inherent in the largest mass of mountains on the planet. After the First World War (1914-1918), the British made Everest their private goal. Meanwhile, mountaineers from other countries were making spectacularly successful climbs from other great Himalayan peaks.
In the year 1922, George Finch and Geoffrey Bruce made headlines in the newspapers of the time when they reached an unprecedented height until then: 8,175 meters. The height reached by an expedition to Mount Everest. Finch and Bruce were successful in reaching this altitude because of the pioneering use of supplemental oxygen. In the coming decades, scientists would refine this technique.
World War I
Conquest of the Himalaya at WWI. After World War I, mountaineering grew in popularity among amateurs, who climbed mountains dressed in ordinary dress, with little knowledge or readiness for the risks they encountered. In addition to the Europeans, mountaineering was also gaining popularity in China, India, Japan, Russia and New Zealand.
Conquest of the Himalaya at WWII. The Second World War (1939-1945) temporarily interrupted the list of conquests. But as soon as the war ended, in the 1950s, a series of successful mountain ascents emerged in the Himalayas. Annapurna I (8,059 meters) in June 1950 by a French team, Nanga Parbat (8,126 m) in 1953 by Germans and Austrians, Kanchenjunga (8,586 m) by British in 1955, Lhotse I (8,516 meters) by Swiss in 1956. The King of mountain K2 (8,611 m) was first climbed by two Italian climbers in July 1954.
The British obsession with Mount Everest became a reality in 1953, when New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tibetan Tenzing Norgay reached the top of the world on May 29. It was the eighth team in 30 years to try Everest.
Mount K2 and Everest post conquest
Since the 1960s, mountaineering has undergone several transformations. Once the most emblematic peaks were climbed, the emphasis shifted to a search for increasingly difficult routes, going up the mountain face to the summit, as in the golden age of alpine climbing.
Meanwhile, last 1964 all 8,000 meters of mountains in the Himalayas were hit. And in 1975, Japanese climber Junko Tabei became the first woman to climb Mount Everest. She would become the first woman to climb all Seven Summits in 1992, just seven years after Richard Bass.
Mountaineering in South America
The 1960s and 1970s were formative for the culture of mountaineering outside Europe, with countries like Brazil, Argentina and Chile establishing their own styles of mountaineering. This was also a time of rapid technological advancement, and climbers were able to use artificial aids and more sophisticated techniques.
Aid of Oxygen
Philosophical challenges, such as the aid of oxygen, also began. The first climb above 8,000 meters above sea level, in the distant year of 1922 and carried out by a British expedition led by George Finch, was made with the help of supplemental oxygen. However, the mountain community took into account that the attitude was considered “unsportsmanlike”. By definition, unsportsmanlike is when a person, or more, manipulates situations or tries to feel better than the opponents or opponents.
After 25 years, in which the human being considered impossible to reach the summit of Everest without oxygen, in 1978 the climbers Reinhold Messner and Peter Hableler succeeded. Two years later, shortly after being accused of using supplemental oxygen in an ascent, Messner goes back up. Everest, now alone, that is, without any pre-established technical support, oxygen and by the most difficult route. (to the northwest and makes the history).
Plan your next trip the easiest way and witness the beauty of Himalaya. Enjoy the beauty of the mountain and be a conqueror.